API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations. Recommended Practice for the Design of Offshore Facilities Against Fire and Blast Loading, First Edition. American Petroleum Institute (API) First Edition, April 76p. This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of.
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This website uses non-intrusive cookies to improve your user experience. Generally speaking, guidance for the offshore area is still evolving.
The potential for an accidental pr of a hydrocarbon mixture is ever present on hydrocarbon carrying installations and, if ignited, could lead to a serious incident involving loss of life, loss of the asset and environmental damage. Publishers F2b Coverage Privacy. Care is required in converting back to the actual structure to ensure the additional stresses are captured, particularly at support locations of both the beam and at equipment support points Non-linear finite element analysis The most complex and extensive structural modelling process adopted is the finite element method which can potentially capture all of the non-linear material and geometric behaviour together with the dynamics.
The performance standard required for these elements and systems should be clear to encapsulate not just the blast wall capacity, but the connections to the primary structure and the response of the primary structure, and be subject to scrutiny associated with the verification scheme for the installation.
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The measures for frequency and severity level are normally based on the size of the inventory and complexity of the process, the level of congestion and confinement and the staffing level of the installation. Robustness of the integrity should be measured against the resilience of the structure to resist these loads with suitable margins to cater for the uncertainties in the load estimation, the modelling schem chosen, and the material properties of the materials used.
The selection of prominent leak scenarios was based on the good practice followed in the industry supported by the requirements specified within Operator Standards as well. Aip the QRA process is quite complex and can be demanding which tends to limit the QRA by concentrating apj representative scenarios.
Even if confinement is reduced, high levels of congestion can actually create confinement and enhance the explosion experienced by the surrounding plant and structure. Log in to your subscription Username. Much of this data is currently being harmonised through ISO to a set of appropriate criteria. Subsequently, frequency analysis was conducted using parts count methodology to cumulate the frequency of fire scenarios.
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This publication serves as a guide for those who are concerned with the 2fbb and construction of new platforms and for the relocation of existing platforms used for the drilling, development, and storage of hyd This is of relevance to the offshore sector in relationship to FPSO’s where potentially larger gas cloud zpi could form due to space constraints.
Other valuable documents include the Norsok standards and the GEE JIP project which resulted in the publication of an important handbook. Some packages can also potentially capture contact, brittle and ductile behaviour of the structure.
Impact of this policy This policy should have no impact for new installations as designs should incorporate the required regulatory and technical principles. If an installation is one that is in a high risk category which is relying heavily on ductility, this is the only technique which, if the model is extensive enough, can capture the interaction between the structural members and the true ductility of the structural system.
You can visit our cookie privacy page for more information. The nature of the threat varies significantly with inventory detail, level of confinement and congestion which is almost always present on North Sea layouts. The most complex and extensive structural modelling process adopted is the finite element method which can potentially capture all of the non-linear material and geometric behaviour together with the dynamics.
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rl This recommended practice is intended to assist in development of a management program designed to promote safety and environmental protection during the performance of offshore oil and gas and sulphur operations. 2cb elements and systems are used in provision of control and barriers for explosions and are likely to 2b designated safety critical elements.
Previous research has shown that as the gas cloud increases a runaway length can be reached at which point the overpressure increases significantly. This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of offshore structures against fire and blast loading. Care is required in converting back to the actual structure to ensure the additional stresses are captured, particularly at support locations of both the beam and at equipment support points.
Large scale testing in recent years has highlighted that 2db higher overpressures 2gb occur as pr result of an ignition of a hydrocarbon in a typical offshore module with realistic levels of congestion and confinement.
Ageing assessments should confirm that structural arrangements are still appropriate for inventory levels that exist on the installation. Ongoing operational safety shall be demonstrated by appropriate design capacity in conjunction with an appropriate integrity management system to ensure degradation is kept within acceptable limits. In some cases this can gp to ignoring the low probability high consequence events.
It emphasizes the need to train personnel in fire fighting, to conduct routine drills, and to esta More emphasis on requirements for providing inherent safety is now required. Although an incident of the same magnitude as Piper Alpha has been avoided, there have been fires and explosions which could potentially have led to more catastrophic events. Resources Technical policy relating to seismic event hazards Jack-up self-elevating installations: A fire and blast information group was subsequently established through which a number of important technical notes have been published.
Prior to the Piper Alpha incident inlimited design guidance for offshore structures to limit the consequences of fires and explosions existed.
Limiting a potential gas cloud size is an important issue in the design phase as well as keeping the design pressures inherently lower generally through design to minimise the effects of an explosion and fire is a key component on an FPSO facility Relevant publications ISO Offshore Structures – General requirements ISO Specific requirements for offshore structures – Part 3: Proceedings of an International Conference Submersible Technology: Risk level Large scale testing in recent years has highlighted that significantly higher overpressures can occur as a result of an ignition of a hydrocarbon in a typical offshore module with realistic levels of congestion and confinement.
Application of such methodology would 22fb provide benefits to the operators in receiving quick and reliable fire protection cost estimate. Some examples of this include the common practice of sniping secondary beams to minimise weld distortions when attached to webs of plate girders as part of the deck. However what is certainly not simple is the way in which the actual structure is converted into a single spring and a mass which in general requires good engineering judgement and a certain degree of experience.
Fire and Explosion Guidance Part 0: The methodology adopted was to conduct a risk assessment for a typical bid to arrive r; the sound cost estimate for the fire protection systems. Proceedings of an international conference Oceanology: