Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, . Inelastic scattering includes Brillouin scattering, Raman scattering , inelastic X-ray scattering and Compton scattering. Light scattering is one of the. hasil pengamatan Compton tentang hamburan foton dari sinar X menunjukkan bahwa foton dapat dipandang sebagai partikel, sehingga. sedangkan hamburan yang inelastis adalah hamburan Brillouin, hamburan Raman, dan hamburan. Compton. Hamburan Rayleigh Proses dimana radiasi.

Author: Sagrel Dotaur
Country: Angola
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Education
Published (Last): 16 February 2012
Pages: 107
PDF File Size: 16.40 Mb
ePub File Size: 12.56 Mb
ISBN: 785-1-13006-685-9
Downloads: 67080
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Mazull

Retrieved from ” https: Multiple Scattering in Solids. In certain rare circumstances, multiple scattering may only involve a small number of interactions such that the randomness is not completely averaged out. Compton suppression is used to detect stray scatter gamma rays to counteract this effect.

Clay from Amsterdam of the influence of latitude on cosmic ray intensity. Some synchrotron radiation facilities scatter laser light off the stored electron beam. Wilson who, in his cloud chamber, could show the presence of the tracks of the recoil electrons. In Compton’s original experiment see Fig.

Scattering may also refer to particle-particle collisions between molecules, atoms, electronsphotons and other particles. Surfaces described as white owe their appearance to multiple scattering of light by internal or surface inhomogeneities in the object, for example by the boundaries of transparent microscopic crystals that make up a stone or by the microscopic fibers in a sheet of paper.

Several different aspects of electromagnetic scattering are distinct enough to have conventional names. His investigations, carried out in cooperation with E. The apparent blue color of veins in skin is a common example where both spectral absorption and scattering play important and complex roles in the coloration.

Although nuclear Compton scattering exists, [2] Compton scattering usually refers to the interaction involving only the electrons of an atom.

In this size regime, the exact shape of the scattering center is usually not very significant and can often be treated as a sphere of equivalent volume. For modeling of scattering in cases where the Rayleigh and Mie models do not apply such as irregularly shaped particles, there are many numerical methods that can be used. Scattering Concepts in physics Atomic physics Nuclear physics Particle physics Radar theory Scattering, absorption and radiative transfer optics.

This gave rise to extensive studies of the interaction of the Earth’s magnetic field with the incoming isotropic stream of primary charged particles. Compton ‘s chief recreations were tennis, astronomy, photography and music. At energies hamburna a few eV to a few keV, corresponding to visible light through soft X-rays, a photon can be completely absorbed and its energy can eject an electron from its host atom, a process known as the photoelectric effect.


The photon’s momentum is then simply this effective mass times the photon’s frame-invariant velocity c. He developed a theory of the intensity of X-ray reflection from crystals as a means of studying the arrangement of electrons and atoms, and in he started a study of X-ray scattering.

With multiple scattering, the randomness of the interaction tends to be averaged out by the large number of scattering events, so that the final path of the radiation appears to be a deterministic distribution of intensity. Co,pton ; Scott Williamson; Jan Dyck Doan who obtained X-ray spectra from ruled gratings, which offers a direct method of measuring the wavelength of X-rays.


This section does not cite any sources. For larger diameters, the problem of electromagnetic scattering by spheres was first solved by Gustav Mieand scattering by spheres larger than the Rayleigh range is therefore usually known as Mie scattering. It is very common that scattering centers are grouped together; in such cases, radiation may scatter many times, in what is known as multiple scattering.

He was educated at the College, graduating Bachelor of Science inand he spent three years in postgraduate study at Princeton University receiving his M. DuringCompton led a world-wide study of the geographic variations of the intensity of cosmic rays, thereby fully confirming the observations made in by J.

The amount by which the light’s wavelength changes is called the Compton shift. Retrieved from ” https: The description of scattering and the distinction between single and multiple scattering are tightly related to wave—particle duality.

Light scattering can also create color without absorption, often shades of blue, as with the sky Rayleigh scatteringthe human blue irisand the feathers of some birds Prum et al. Prosaically, wave scattering corresponds to the collision and scattering of a wave with some material object, for instance sunlight scattered by rain drops to form a rainbow.

This outcome necessitated the revision of comptoh Millikan oil-drop value from 4. Because the location of a single scattering center is not usually well known relative to the path of the radiation, the outcome, which tends to depend strongly on the exact incoming trajectory, appears random to an observer.


hamburqn Electromagnetic waves are one of the best known and most commonly encountered forms of radiation that undergo scattering. Penyebaran sinar Rontgen pada dasarnya lebih kuat dari sinar cahaya yang dapat dilihat polychromatik. Geigerby which it could be established that individual scattered X-ray photons and recoil electrons appear at the same instant, contradicting the views then being developed by some investigators in an cpmpton to reconcile quantum views with the continuous waves of electromagnetic theory.

Along with absorption, such scattering is a major cause of the attenuation of radiation by the atmosphere. Scattering theory is a framework for studying and understanding the scattering of waves and particles. The degree of scattering varies as a function of the ratio of the particle diameter to the wavelength of the radiation, along with many other factors including polarizationangle, and coherence.

Some areas where scattering and scattering theory are significant include radar sensing, medical ultrasoundsemiconductor wafer inspection, polymerization process monitoring, acoustic tiling, free-space communications and computer-generated imagery. Compton’s experiment convinced physicists that light can be treated as a stream of particle-like objects quanta called photonswhose energy is proportional to the light wave’s frequency.

These systems comptob considered to be some of the most difficult to model accurately.


The shape of the MCP also yields insight into the origin of the magnetism in the system. More generally, the gloss or lustre or sheen of the surface is determined by scattering.

John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Closed-form solutions for scattering by certain other simple shapes exist, but no general closed-form solution is known for arbitrary shapes. A well-controlled laser beam can be exactly positioned to scatter off a microscopic particle with a deterministic outcome, for instance. Compton allowed for the possibility that the interaction would sometimes accelerate the electron to speeds sufficiently close to the velocity of light as to require the application of Einstein’s special relativity theory to properly describe its energy and momentum.

Light scattering is one of the two major physical processes that contribute to the visible appearance of most objects, the other being absorption.